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Peals Terms and General Definitions (part-1)

Peals Terms and general definitions (part-1)

wholesale pearlsFor the purposes of these CIBJO Standard/rules, the following terms and definitions apply;

5.1. Abalone Cultured Blister
a cultured blister (5.49) from an abalone.(6.1) (Wentzel, 1998, Brown, 1994, Fankboner, 2001, Fankboner, 2002, Liu, 2002, Wentzel, 2004).

5.2. Abalone Pearl
a natural pearl, usually coloured, found in gastropod molluscs of the Haliotis (6.24) genus in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Ocean (Kelly, 2003).

5.3. Adductor muscle
the muscle attached to both valves of a bi-valve (5.16) that causes the shell to close when it contracts (Mikkelsen, 2003).

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5.4. Akoya
see (6.45 and 6.3) (Mikkelsen, 2003).

5.5. Akoya cultured pearl
a beaded cultured pearl (5.15) produced in Pinctada fucata (martensii) (6.45), the Akoya pearl oyster.

5.6. Artificial products
Products which are composites or imitations (5.84).

5.7. Assembled
See composite (5.42) cultured pearl and assembled cultured pearl blister (5.7).

5.8. Assembled cultured blister
assemblages of a purpose-grown cultured blisters (5.49) which have been cut from their shell, the original bead (5.124) upon which they grew being removed and the cavity filled with various types of man-made materials, and backed by a layer of shell, the assemblages being held together by an adhesive; commonly known as Mabe (5.97) or Hankei (5.79) and occur in both fresh and saltwater environments. Not to be confused with cut cultured pearl (5.50). (Mikkelsen, 2003, Walker, 2001).

5.9. Arabian Gulf
An area in Southwest Asia that is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.

5.10. Arabian Gulf pearls
natural pearls (5.118) produced from the Pinctada Radiata (6.52).

5.11. Bahraini pearl
a natural pearl (5.118) from Bahraini waters in the Arabian gulf produced from the Pinctada Radiata (6.52).

5.12. Baroque
an irregularly shaped natural (5.118) or cultured pearl (5.48). Baroque was originally a French adjective used to describe objects or pearls that were not symmetrical in shape. (Mikkelsen, 2003).

5.13. Basra Pearl
a natural pearl (5.118) from the Arabian gulf produced from the Pinctada Radiata (6.52).

5.14. Bead for cultured pearls
a sphere (usually) or other shape (occasionally) originally formed by cutting and polishing a nacreous shell used to accommodate the nacre (5.110) secreted from a cultured pearl sac (5.47). The bead eventually forms the centre of a beaded cultured pearl (5.15).
Note: Atypically, beads formed from natural (5.118) or cultured pearls (5.48) of various types or other materials may be used, however, in such circumstances the product shall be described as containing an atypical bead or the type of bead shall be named, e.g., an ―atypical bead cultured pearl‖, a ―turquoise bead cultured pearl‖.

5.15. Beaded Nacreous Cultured Pearl
beaded cultured pearls are usually nacreous (5.111) formations secreted in the interior of a pearl oyster (5.137). A bead (5.14) is inserted into the mollusc along with a piece of mantle tissue which eventually forms the cultured pearl sac (5.47) around the bead (5.14) which is in turn responsible for the secretion of nacreous layers. The outer layers of beaded nacreous cultured pearls are concentric and composed of a complex scleroprotein named conchiolin (5.44) and of calcium carbonate (usually in the form of aragonite). See nacreous cultured pearls (5.48).

5.16. Bivalve
a member of the molluscan class Bivalvia, having a two-part shell, e.g., clam, oyster, mussel, and scallop (Mikkelsen, 2003).

5.17. Biwa Cultured Pearl
a freshwater beaded or non-beaded cultured pearl produced in Lake Biwa, Japan, using the freshwater bivalve mollusc Hyriopsis schlegeli (6.27). See also 5.179 (Mikkelsen, 2003).

5.18. Black Cultured Pearl
natural colour, cultured black pearl produced using either Pinctada margaritifera (6.49) (the Tahitian cultured pearl (5.171), Pinctada mazatlanica (6.51) or Pteria sterna (6.59) or other pearl oysters (5.137). The colour is not caused by any subsequent processing.

5.19. Black Natural Pearl
natural colour, natural black pearl produced by Pinctada margaritifera (6.49) Pinctada mazatlanica (6.51) or Pteria sterna (6.59). Colour not caused by any subsequent processing.

5.20. Bleaching
to remove, lighten (make whiter) or alter (e.g., from black to brown/bronze) colour by means of chemical and/or physical agents or light. (Shouguo, 2001, Sanchez, 2004).

5.21. Blister cultured pearl
a cultured pearl, (5.48) that has perforated the mantle of the mollusc and has adhered, through layers of nacreous or non-nacreous secretions applied by the mollusc, to the inner wall of the shell. The subsequently formed layers of nacreous or non-nacreous material are continuous with those of the inner wall of the shell. They are round or irregular in shape and the base of the blister cultured pearl may be worked (5.185).

5.22. Blister natural pearl
a natural pearl (5.118) that has perforated the mantle of the mollusc and has naturally adhered, through layers of nacreous or non-nacreous secretions applied by the mollusc, to the inner wall of the shell. The subsequently formed layers of nacreous or non-nacreous material are continuous with those of the inner wall of the shell. They are round or irregular in shape and are secreted without human intervention (Scarratt 2001). Blister pearls are known in the Arabian Gulf as “Nimro”. The base of natural blister pearls may be worked (5.185).

5.23. Body colour
the dominant, overall colour of the natural or cultured pearl.

5.24. Bombay Bunches
strands of round salt water natural seed pearls (ranging from less than 1 mm to 3 mm)(5.159), mostly with medium to high lustre and well-matching colour. These bunches are known by the trade as Bombay Bunches and are mostly marketed in Europe.

5.25. Bombay pearls
commercial name for natural pearls chiefly from Pinctada radiata (6.52), fished from the Arabian Gulf and Red Sea and exported through Bombay, India (Mikkelsen, 2003).

5.26. Bonding
the union or cohesion brought about by the use of a substance or an agent that causes two or more objects or parts to cohere.

5.27. Bonus cultured pearl
See Lagniappe cultured pearl (5.93) and Keshi cultured pearl (5.91).

5.28. Buffing
removing organic residues from the surfaces of natural and cultured pearls following harvest (see also polishing, 5.148).

5.29. Button-shaped pearl
a symmetrical domed-shape pearl with or without a flattish bottom.

5.30. Carat
unit of weight (5.184) (mass 5.102), equal to one fifth of a gram (200 milligrams) or 4 grains (5.73).

5.31. Cerclé
see circled cultured pearl (5.35).

5.32. Chaw
The chaw is a system of converting weight into volume. Pearls in the Arabian Gulf and India are often sold by chaw. Chaw is calculated as follows:
Chaw = (carat weight)² x 88 / no. of Pearls135
The Chaw price depends on the grade and type of pearls.

5.33. Chinese drilling
a term applied to natural pearls that are, in general, button-shaped and drilled (5.55) with two drill-holes. Both drill-holes penetrate the pearl from different points on the flat or less-round side and meet at a point within the pearl. The drilling was originally designed to facilitate pearls being used as buttons.

5.34. Choker
a strand of uniform sized natural pearls, cultured pearls or imitation pearls measuring 35-40cm (14 to 16 inches) in length.

5.35. Circled cultured pearl
a cultured pearl (5.48) also known as cerclé,(5.31) with one or more concentric rings or indented grooves around it (Mikkelsen, 2003).

5.36. Clam pearl
natural pearl from the hard-shell and giant clams, e.g., Mercenaria mercenaria (quahog)(6.41), Tridacna gigas (giant clam) (6.69) et.al., (Shirai, 1994, Hill., 2004, 1977, Hardy, 1947).
Note: see Clause 2 Normative References; Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

5.37. Cleaning
following its removal from a mollusc, a pearl maybe cleaned of debris by immersion in water that contains various detergents. This process does not include any bleaching chemicals and is known as ‗cleaning‘.

5.38. Coating
an artificial layer of any natural or artificial substance spread over the surface, or part of the surface, of pearls for protection, colouration, increased lustre and other optical
phenomena (orient and overtone), decoration or to change appearance; a covering layer.
Note: any natural or cultured pearl (5.118 and 5.48) that is coated, i.e., the outer layer is not composed of nacre laid down by a mollusc, shall be considered an imitation of a pearl (5.84).

5.39. Collar
a strand of pearls, cultured pearls or imitation pearls measuring 25-33cm (10 to 13 inches) in length.

5.40. Colour
colour has three attributes: hue, tone, and saturation. Hue is the basic impression of colour—yellow, green, blue, etc. Tone is the relative impression of lightness or darkness of the colour. Saturation is the strength or intensity of the colour. In general the colour of nacreous natural and cultured pearls may be described in terms of a combination of ‗body colour‘ (5.23), ‗overtone‘ (5.132) and ‗orient‘ (5.130).
Nacreous natural pearls from the Arabian Gulf pearls have a wide selection of colours that have other traditional and distinctive trade names; white (Abyadh), dull white (Basali), black (Aswad), cream with a reddish hue (Nabati), white with a pinkish hue (Mushayer), whitish-blue or whitish-grey (Singbassi), white or cream with a bluish hue (Samawi), white with strong iridescent colours (Gallabi), white or cream with a strong green hue (Akhthar), glassy white or whitish-blue with high lustre (Alzujaji), rose pink (Wardi), light yellow (Ashgar), cream (Keremi).

5.41. Commercial Name
a name assigned for marketing purposes.

5.42. Composite pearl or cultured pearl
Artificial product composed of two or more parts of which at least one is a natural pearl (5.118) or a cultured pearl ( 5.48) ,they may be assembled by bonding ( 5.26) or other artificial methods.

5.43. Conch Pearl
a non-nacreous natural pearl consisting of calcium carbonate arranged concentrically in a crossed lamellar microarchitecture. This structural characteristic usually produces a flame-like surface pattern and porcelaneous sheen. Such pearls are produced by various gastropods including the Queen Conch (Strombus gigas) (6.67), Horse Conch (Pleuroploca gigantea) (6.54), and the Emperor Helmet (Cassis madagasgerensis) (6.8). Also known as pink pearls. See also (6.11) conch. (Farn, 1977, Farn, 1979a, Fritsch, 1987, Moses, 2001, Rutland, 1971, Kornitzer, 1937, Sciaguato, 2004).
Note: see Clause 2 Normative References; Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

5.44. Conchiolin
protein material (C32H48N2O11) constituting the organic portion of nacre (Mikkelsen, 2003).

5.45. Coque de perle
a shell section, cut from the curved nacreous surface of a polished Chambered nautilus (6.10), then finished like an assembled pearl. Coques de perles are often assembled into jewellery, to resemble large oval half-pearls (Farn, 1979b, Webster, 1966).

5.46. Culture
the growth of biological material, microorganisms, animal tissue or pearls with human intervention, in specially controlled conditions.

5.47. Cultured Pearl Sac
a pearl sac produced / grown from a graft (5.71) of mantle tissue (5.99) artificially inserted into the body of a host mollusc or created from mantle damage due to human handling.

5.48. Cultured Pearls
See 5.114, and 5.121

5.49. Cultured Blister
See 5.115

5.50. Cut Cultured Pearls
cultured pearls (5.48) that have been cut in half or three quarters to produce a flat base.

5.51. Cut Natural Pearls
natural pearls (5.118) that have been cut to produce a flat base.

5.52. Cyst pearls
natural pearls (5.118) that occur in a pearl-sac (5.139) and not in direct contact with the shell of a pearl-producing mollusc.

5.53. Dobo pearls
a commercial name for cultured pearls traded and exported through Dobo in Indonesia.

5.54. Dyeing
application of a dye or stain to natural materials or artificial products.

5.55. Drilled
a pearl with a cylindrical hole engineered to enter at one point and exit on the opposite side. Also see part-drilled (5.134) and Chinese drilled (5.33).

5.56. Essence d‟orient
French term for a solution of powdered fish scales in resin or other coating, used for manufacturing imitation pearls (5.84) (Mikkelsen, 2003).

5.57. Faceted cultured pearls
cultured pearls (5.48) with multiple flat, convex or concave facets that have been artificially formed on their surface (Hurwit, 2001).

5.58. Faceting
a polishing technique applied to cultured pearls (5.48), to obtain multiple facets.

5.59. Filling
to introduce a substance that occupies a whole or part of a void in a pearl.

5.60. Fine pearl
see natural pearl (5.118).

5.61. Fissure
a very narrow opening; a fine fracture.

5.62. Fracture filling
To occupy the whole or part of a fracture with a substance, e.g. glass, resins, oil, etc.; to pervade; to spread throughout; to occupy completely; or make full, with the purpose of making the fracture less visible.

5.63. Frequency
the rate of occurrence (according to current knowledge) for a treatment being applied to pearls including bleaching, bonding, dyeing, irradiating, oiling, staining, tinting and/or waxing. Expressed as None: Unknown: Rarely: Uncommon: Occasionally: Common: Usually: or Always: in Annex A.

5.64. Freshwater
a body of water that is non-saline, e.g., rivers, lakes, ponds and marshes.

5.65. Freshwater Cultured Pearl
cultured pearls (5.48) produced in molluscs (mussels) in freshwater, e.g., Hyriopsis schlegelii (6.27), Hyriopsis cumingii (6.26). (Mikkelsen, 2003, Sweeny, 1982, Jobbins, 1993, Hänni, 2000, Scarratt, 2000, Akamatsu, 2001).

5.66. Freshwater Natural Pearl
A natural pearl (5.118) produced by a bi-valve (5.16) mollusc (5.107) living in freshwater (5.64).

5.67. Genuine
actually possessing the alleged or apparent attribute or character.

5.68. Gonad
the sex or reproductive organ.

5.69. Gonad grown cultured pearl
a cultured pearl (5.48) grown in the gonad (5.68) of a pearl producing mollusc.

5.70. Gonad natural pearl
a horn or cusp-shaped natural pearl common in abalone (6.1), formed in the similarly shaped reproductive organ or gonad (5.68).

5.71. Graft
a piece of epithelium tissue cut from the mantle (5.99) of a nacre (5.110) -producing mollusc that is inserted into the body of another nacre producing mollusc (5.107), (usually of the same species), to initiate the growth of a cultured pearl sac (5.47) and a cultured pearl (5.48).

5.72. Grafting
the action of introducing tissue cut from the mantle (5.99) of a nacre (5.110) -producing mollusc into the body of another nacre-producing mollusc (5.107) (usually of the same species) to initiate the growth of a cultured pearl sac (5.47) and a cultured pearl (5.48). Grafting can be done into the recipient oyster‘s mantle (5.99 ) or gonad (5.68) – mantle-grown cultured pearls (5.100) or gonad-grown cultured pearls (5.69).

5.73. Grain
0.25 of one carat (ct) (0.25ct, equivalent to 0.05 gram or 50 milligrams).

5.74. Gram
1/1000 of a kilogram.

5.75. Gulf pearl
a natural pearl (5.118) from the Arabian Gulf produced from the Pinctada Radiata.

5.76. Half composite cultured pearl
see 5.42

5.77. Half cultured blister
see 5.49.

5.78. Half cultured pearl
see 5.50.

5.79. Hankei
Japanese trade term for cultured blister (5.49).

5.80. Heating
to heat a pearl or cultured pearl to a temperature that alters its appearance. (Elen, 2001, Elen, 2002, Elen, 2003).

5.81. Hinge pearl
a natural pearl of irregular and usually elongated shape, found near the hinge of bi-valve (5.16) molluscs – not cut from the shell (Du Toit, 1997).

5.82. Hollow cultured pearl
a cultured pearl (5.48) with a large enclosed cavity.

5.83. Hollow pearl
a natural pearl (5.118) with a large enclosed cavity.

5.84. Imitation Pearls
products that simulate the appearance of natural (5.118) or cultured pearls (5.48) without possessing their chemical composition and/or their physical properties and/or their structure. Any product which is pearl-like in appearance is an imitation pearl if its outer layers are not completely composed of a natural substance secreted in the interior of the productive molluscs (see Simulated 5.162).

5.85. Invertebrate
an animal without an internal backbone. Examples are snails and clams (molluscs), crabs and shrimp (crustaceans), starfish and sea urchins (echinoderms), worms (annelids), corals and sea fans (cnidarians or coelenterates).

5.86. Irradiating
to expose to or process with radiation.

5.87. Irradiation
exposing natural or cultured pearls to radiation to alter their appearance.

5.88. Kan
a unit of pearl weight equal to 1,000 momme (5.108) or 3.75 kilograms.

5.89. Kharag
the Arabic name given for the person who specialists in working pearls.

Articles source: THE PEARL BOOK, Natural, Cultured, Composite & Imitation Pearls — Terminology & Classification (Including information on modifications), 2013-08-12, CIBJO/Pearl Commission.
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